Ethereum气费上涨,但L2解决方案即将到来

Quantstamp Labs
October 6, 2020

Ethereum gas fees are steadily rising. As fees continue to break all-time highs, non-whale DeFi users are slowly priced-out of DeFi because transaction fees are eliminating their profits. In addition, many non-DeFi applications such as gaming applications are becoming unusable on Ethereum Layer 1. 

The Ethereum gas price recently experience high volatility.

As the demand and popularity of Ethereum increases, transaction fees are likely to continue to rise. To address this, many projects including OMG Network, SKALE Network, and IDEX are producing scaling solutions that drastically reduce the cost and increase the speed of transactions for users while keeping users in control of their assets. 

Tether on OMG Network

Tether (USDT) is the stablecoin with the most liquidity in the entire blockchain ecosystem. Tether has a 15 billion USD market cap and trading volumes that regularly surpass both Bitcoin and Ethereum. Historically, it is the highest consumer of gas compared to any other smart contract on Ethereum (Uniswap recently surpassed Tether). On August 19th, Bitfinex, the issuer of Tether, integrated the OMG Network in order to enhance the user experience of Tether.

Tether has the 3rd highest market capitalization out of all cryptocurrencies. Image source: coinpaprika

In order for an exchange or user to access their Tether on the OMG Network, they must first deposit Tether into a smart contract on Ethereum Layer 1. Once Tether is deposited, users are eligible to transfer their Tether on OMG Network. The Layer 2 OMG Network is composed of its own blockchain with blocks produced by a single operator. After every block is added to the OMG Network chain, the operator submits the merkle root of the transactions in each OMG block on Ethereum Layer 1.

A “watcher” is used to keep the single block producer accountable. The watcher views all data produced by the single block producer and, in the event that the block producer submits invalid information or attempts to cheat the network, the watcher uses the merkle roots submitted to Ethereum Layer 1 to cryptographically determine if invalid activity took place. If invalid behavior is detected, the watcher notifies users, who have time to challenge invalid behavior and then safely withdraw their funds

Bitfinex will initially use OMG Network to facilitate user transfers of Tether between large exchanges. OMG Network is powered by an implementation of Plasma called MoreVP, which was audited by Quantstamp.

Enabling New Use Cases with SKALE Network

SKALE Network intends to enable new decentralized use cases by not only reducing transaction costs, but also by allowing dApp developers to deploy their own customizable SKALE chains that cater to their applications' unique needs. SKALE Network refers to these Ethereum-as-a-service Layer 2 blockchains as elastic sidechains.

Each elastic sidechain is dedicated to a single decentralized application. dApp developers have a lot of flexibility as to how their sidechain functions. For instance, since there is a monthly flat fee paid to SKALE Network Operators (similar to Ethereum miners), they can dramatically decrease transaction fees for their users by taking thousands of transactions off-chain and settling on mainnet Ethereum only when necessary. Also, these elastic sidechains are not subject to Ethereum’s storage and computation limitations. If dApp operators need more storage or computational power to run their application, they can pay for what they need.

Node operators can run multiple chains. Each chain is dedicated to a single dApp. Image source: SKALE Network

SKALE Network is ideal for potential use cases that are too costly to run solely on Ethereum mainnet. For instance, playing a blockchain-based trading card game directly on Ethereum is undesirable for users because they need to make 10s or 100s of transactions each game session, which can quickly get expensive. On the SKALE Network, users can play their trading card game without having to worry about expensive transactions, while also maintaining sovereignty over their in-game assets. Users will only have to make Ethereum transactions upon entering or exiting the elastic sidechain.

Quantstamp audited components of the SKALE Manager smart contract system which impacts SKALE Network nodes, validators, and elastic sidechains. Quantstamp also audited the SKALE Allocator contracts which manage the vesting structure of SKALE tokens for investors.

IDEX and Optimized Optimistic Rollups

IDEX is a decentralized exchange that plans to incorporate Optimized Optimistic Rollups, a Layer 2 solution, later this year to enhance user experience. Since IDEX’s inception in Oct 2017, IDEX users cumulatively paid over 7 million USD in ether for gas fees. In order to reduce gas fees for users and speed up transaction times, IDEX intends to execute trades and maintain user balances on Layer 2.

Storing merkle roots of Layer 2 blocks allows observers to mathematically prove if malicious or invalid behavior took place. Image source: IDEX

Optimized Optimistic Rollups works very similar to how OMG Network works. All Layer 2 blocks are produced by IDEX, a single block producer, and merkle roots of transactions in these blocks are stored in Layer 1 smart contracts in order to keep the single block producer accountable.

Validator nodes in IDEX’s Optimized Optimistic Rollups have the same function as watchers in OMG Network: they monitor all of the block producer’s activity in order to detect invalid or malicious behavior. One key difference is that IDEX validators have the ability to prevent invalid data from being accepted by the Layer 1 smart contracts. This means that users don't have to take action in the event that an invalid Layer 2 block is published. Any individual validator that can cryptographically prove fraud is able to prevent the invalid block from finalizing, in which case the state will automatically revert to that of the previous valid block.

Quantstamp recently audited the on-chain components of the IDEX 2.0 upgrade.

The Future of Scaling and Ethereum

Many view high fees as a detriment to Ethereum, however, high fees are also an indicator of Ethereum’s success. High fees are also driving Layer 2 development: many leading DeFi projects are already brainstorming ways in which they can drive and connect their liquidity over a Layer 2 solution.

ETH 2.0 will also put downward pressure on fees and, in combination with Layer 2 scaling solutions, will make room for a level of financial activity that is magnitudes greater than what currently exists. Ethereum is preparing to absorb as much worldwide economic activity as possible and development continues at an impressive pace.

Quantstamp 实验室
2020年10月6日

Ethereum气费正在稳步上升。随着费用不断突破历史高位,非鲸鱼DeFi用户慢慢被定价退出DeFi,因为交易费用正在消除他们的利润。此外,许多非DeFi应用,如游戏应用在Ethereum第一层上变得无法使用。 

近期Ethereum气价经历了高波动。

随着Ethereum的需求和普及,交易费用可能会继续上升。为了解决这个问题,包括OMG网络、SKALE网络和IDEX在内的许多项目都在制作扩展解决方案,大幅降低成本,提高用户的交易速度,同时让用户控制自己的资产。 

OMG网络上的Tether

Tether(USDT)是整个区块链生态系统中流动性最高的稳定币。Tether的市值为150亿美元,交易量经常超过比特币和Ethereum。从历史上看,与Ethereum上的其他智能合约相比,它的耗气量是最高的(Uniswap最近超过了Tether)。8月19日,Tether的发行方Bitfinex为了提升Tether的用户体验,整合了OMG网络。

Tether的市值在所有加密货币中排名第三。图片来源 coinpaprika

为了让交易所或用户在OMG网络上访问他们的Tether,他们必须首先将Tether存入Ethereum Layer 1的智能合约中。一旦Tether被存入,用户就有资格在OMG网络上转移他们的Tether。第2层OMG网络由自己的区块链组成,区块由一个运营商生产。每一个区块加入OMG网络链后,运营商会在Ethereum第1层上提交每个OMG区块中交易的merkle根。

一个"观察者"用来对单个区块生产者负责。监视者会查看单个区块生产者产生的所有数据,如果区块生产者提交无效信息或试图欺骗网络,监视者会使用提交给Ethereum第1层的merkle根来加密确定是否发生了无效活动。如果检测到无效行为,观察者会通知用户,用户有时间挑战无效行为,然后安全地提取资金。

Bitfinex最初将使用OMG Network来促进用户在大型交易所之间转移Tether。OMG Network由Plasma的一个名为MoreVP的实现提供支持,它是由Quantstamp

利用SKALE网络实现新的用例

SKALE Network打算通过不仅降低交易成本,而且允许dApp开发者部署自己的可定制SKALE链,以满足其应用的独特需求,从而实现新的去中心化用例。SKALE Network将这些Ethereum即服务的第2层区块链称为弹性侧链

每个弹性侧链都致力于一个单一的去中心化应用。 dApp开发者对其侧链如何运作有很大的灵活性。例如,由于每月都要向SKALE网络运营商(类似于Ethereum矿工)支付统一的费用,因此他们可以通过将成千上万的交易从链外进行,只在必要时在主网Ethereum上进行结算,从而大幅降低用户的交易费用。同时,这些弹性侧链也不受Ethereum的存储和计算限制。如果dApp运营商需要更多的存储或计算能力来运行他们的应用,他们可以为他们需要的东西付费。

节点运营商可以运行多个链。每条链专门用于一个dApp。图片来源 SKALE网络

SKALE网络是潜在用例的理想选择,这些用例的成本太高,无法只在Ethereum主网上运行。例如,直接在Ethereum上玩基于区块链的交易卡游戏对用户来说是不可取的,因为他们需要在每个游戏会话中进行10s或100s的交易,这可能会很快变得昂贵。在SKALE网络上,用户可以不用担心昂贵的交易,同时也可以保持对游戏内资产的主权,玩自己的交易卡游戏。用户只需要在进入或退出弹性侧链时进行Ethereum交易。

Quantstamp 审核了SKALE Manager智能合约系统的组件,该系统影响了SKALE网络节点、验证器和弹性侧链。Quantstamp 还审核了SKALE Allocator合约,该合约为投资者管理SKALE代币的归属结构。

IDEX和优化的优化卷轴

IDEX是一家去中心化交易所,计划在今年晚些时候加入第二层解决方案Optimized Optimistic Rollups,以提升用户体验。自2017年10月IDEX成立以来,IDEX用户累计支付了超过700万美元的乙醚气费。为了降低用户的燃气费,加快交易时间,IDEX打算在第2层执行交易并维护用户余额。

存储第2层区块的merkle根,允许观察者以数学方式证明是否发生了恶意或无效行为。图片来源。 IDEX

优化优化卷的工作方式与OMG网络的工作方式非常相似。所有的第2层区块都是由单一区块生产者IDEX生产的,这些区块中交易的梅克尔根存储在第1层智能合约中,以保证单一区块生产者的责任。

IDEX优化优化卷中的验证器节点与OMG网络中的观察者具有相同的功能:它们监控区块生产者的所有活动,以检测无效或恶意行为。一个关键的区别是,IDEX验证器具有防止无效数据被第1层智能合约接受的能力。这意味着,在发布无效的第2层区块时,用户不必采取行动。任何一个能够加密证明欺诈的个人验证器都能够阻止无效区块的最终确定,在这种情况下,状态将自动恢复到之前有效区块的状态。

Quantstamp ,最近审核了IDEX 2.0升级的链上组件。

规模化和Ethereum的未来

许多人认为高收费是对Ethereum的损害,然而,高收费也是Ethereum成功的一个指标。高费用也在推动第2层的发展:许多领先的DeFi项目已经在集思广益,他们可以通过第2层解决方案来推动和连接他们的流动性。

ETH 2.0还将给费用带来下行压力,并与第2层扩展解决方案相结合,将为比目前存在的金融活动水平更大的空间。Ethereum正准备吸收尽可能多的全球经济活动,发展速度也在继续。

有兴趣了解现阶段ETH2.0的发展情况吗?
了解更多信息
November 11, 2020

Quantstamp Community Update - October 2020

‍Audit of Ethereum 2.0 client Teku, blockchain insurance, Open DeFi, virtual events, and more media coverage... here’s what happened at Quantstamp in October.‍

November 5, 2020

Why Bitcoin is Capturing Enterprise Attention

MicroStrategy made headlines this summer as the first publicly-traded company to buy Bitcoin as part of its capital allocation strategy. Since then, other companies have followed suit. Learn how current economic conditions and the unique properties of Bitcoin have driven these decisions.

October 28, 2020

Formally Verifying Hedera Hashgraph's Stablecoin Framework

Quantstamp created and formally verified a specification for Hedera Hashgraph stablecoins. This simplifies the process of creating safe stablecoins and also makes easier for partners to safely integrate them.

October 27, 2020

Quantstamp Completes Audit of 2nd ETH 2.0 Implementation

Quantstamp has now completed its audit of Teku, the Ethereum 2.0 client developed by ConsenSys. Quantstamp also audited Prysm by Prysmatic Labs.